Teacher to teacher observation - 'literacy and differentiation'

If you can recall, four of the teachers from three different schools decided to have teacher to teacher observations in the school-year 2016/2017. The details can be found in the post Teacher to teacher observation - the tryout.

And so it has started.

November's observation

The topic was 'literacy'. We observed different levels of how to teach 3rd graders to read.

Children worked in groups. The levels of the activities were stretched from focusing on the first sound of the word through playing with syllables, reading words, reading sentences, and lastly reading a dialogue.

The activities were brilliantly organised and judging by their involvement, children enjoyed them. However, I had mixed thoughts about what 'reading' actually means. Is focusing so much time on details (first sound, syllables ...) really the first step towards reading? 

Advocating the so called 'global approach', I believe supporting children's global thinking through context related activities should be the basis of their learning (the approach from a big picture to smaller bits of a puzzle within the same topic). 

Regarding reading, I believe children should have clear purpose of the reading. Is it only for the sake of reading? Is it, maybe, finding some information? Filling in the form? Enjoying the language/plot?

I am aware of (at least) one argument against it. Children cannot read, if they don't now how to read, or if they don't know the letters.

True. But I ask myself this:
Can learning letters, syllables, vocabulary ... be part of a context-based project? Like, learning the aforementioned through stories, descriptions, texts, poems, songs?

Having had enough time to contemplate on my thoughts, I decided to create a lesson, trying to incorporate literacy the way I advocate it, together with a challenge - differentiation among students. 

I invited my colleagues to observe the lesson, the 3rd graders.

February's observation

Pensive, I drafted thoughts prior to organising the lesson:
  • The context is 'At My School' - project that gives children the big picture and from which we take out some vocabulary.
  • All of the activities we did in this project so far were school-related, so the context should be clear to them.
  • The aim of the activities - describing the school, the classroom and the schoolbag.
  • The activities are the preparation for the reading.
  • The purpose of the activities for children is 'playing a game'. 
  • The follow up activity - reading a text. Hypothesis: Being familiar with the sentence formation, knowing the vocabulary and the use of the basic grammatical number in nouns, children should be able to find the information in a text easier.

The groups: There were three levels according to their level of experience. The levels were divided among five groups and some children working individually.

The most experienced level: practiced sentence formation. Discussing the pictures on a given topic, they needed to form a sentence starting with THERE IS  or THERE ARE, adding the WHAT and ending with WHERE.  
The game: Groups collected points for a correct description. 

Some examples of the sentences:

  • There are classrooms in my school.
  • There is a board in my classroom.
  • There is glue in my schoolbag.

VISUAL SUPPORT: We had a colour code displayed on the board. GREEN - plural, no article, -s at the end, RED - singular, an article and no -s at the end. 

The middle level: was practicing vocabulary and forming sentences up to the level they were capable of via playing 'Memory Game' (a pair was a picture with a word and a picture with no word - level 2), and 'The Black Witch' (Črni Peter), where the pair was a picture with a word and a word.

Some examples of the sentences:
  • There are scissors.
    Memory - level 4
  • There is a locker.
  • There are notebooks.
If, however, some of the children knew how to answer the WHERE question, they added it in the sentence.

The Black Witch, level 3

The struggling level: some of the children in this group are still finding hard to memorise the words, whereas some were struggling with singular/plural forms. 

For them, I have made a working sheet with pictures and one with the words. The objective was to find  the correct English word to the picture and mark the grammar number in our colour coding.

On the sheet with the words only, they needed to colour code the words in order to distinguish whether it was written in singular or in plural. The children also had an option to write a sentence, if they felt they were up to the job. There were examples written for them.

The presentation: At the end, every group presented their work by giving some descriptions, the rest of the class contributed.

While organising the lesson, focusing on differentiation, I was struggling most how to address the weaker children. 

The discussion: 
After the lesson the four of us teachers had a sit-down to discuss what was presented.

What I found most enlightening was the fact, that some questions from my colleagues, addressing my chosen activity for the 'weak group', opened a new perspective on my teaching approach. Up until now, I was positive that global approach, advocated and taught via my study on convergent pedagogy, works for every level of children's knowledge. After the discussion, a shadow of a doubt was cast upon my notion.

Additionally, my colleagues well observed that the weak-level's activity was not really a game. 

Furthermore, it was discussed how to monitor every pupil's contribution (to see if they have completed every sentence correctly, if their pronunciation was correct etc.)


The global approach  works very well with the talented group as well as the middle level.

It works magnificently with the talented students, because it allows them to go as far as they can comprehend and does not limit them with (curriculum's) boundaries. 

Unfortunately, it does not address the weaker students the way it should. Contemplating on that, I returned back to what I had seen at the November's observation. I now believe, focusing more on syllable-practice activities with the weaker pupils could help them both with reading and memorising. 

This activity, however, can be rather boring for those who can already read

Differentiation, which of course undoubtedly leads to group work, is therefore essential.

Despite of the effort to prepare group activities in order for the children to practice in smaller groups, it is impossible for the teacher to monitor every pupil within the same lesson. Both teachers and pupils should be aware of that. That is why I believe is important to focus the first few schooling years' programme on developing social skills and teach children to take responsibility for their own learning. And that can be done via cooperative game-like activities, not only in a foreign language, but also (essential!) at other subjects.


Teacher to teacher observation ... a big YES. I believe this is how one's profession improves. I cannot wait to share my experience at our next Saturday meeting. I might get even more challenging questions then.

My mind is now working on creating some group play-games on syllables for our 'school' topic, for the weaker pupils, ENTWINED IN A PROJECT AND CONTEXT RELATED, of course.


What's the meaning of early language learning?

I received an e-mail from a parent. One of his/her children is in the 1st grade, the other in the 4th, both of whom learn English at school. 

His/her question was: 

"Is the aim of English language learning in the 1st grade learning songs by heart? My child has to memorise five songs (he/she listed the titles) and, according to his/her performance, he/she will be graded. The problem is, he/she doesn't understand half of the meaning of the songs and struggles with some words. It's not that I want to fight with the teacher. I just want to find a way how to deal with the situation. How to help my child?"

It had made me think and opened some questions:

What does 'knowing language' actually mean?

  • Knowing words?
  • Knowing chunks of words?
  • Knowing songs?
  • Knowing set of dialogues?
  • Knowing fixed sets of 'correct' answers to 'correct' questions?
  • Understanding what people around you are speaking/doing?
  • Responding to the communication addressed at you?
I believe, it is all the above. The thing is, when teaching young children, one needs to make priorities and start at the basics. 

Which is?

What is the purpose of early language learning?

Imagine a child, aged 5-7 at the playground in a company of its peers. (Or at home, for that matter). What are they doing? 

Well, the answer you've most probably come up with is the one that should be seriously considered to be taken into a classroom. 


If you want a child to play in another language, they firstly need to employ social skills in order to successfully communicate with each other. 

In my belief, foreign language learning at the age of 5-7 should be nothing but playing social games, in which learning how to organise themselves (learning social skills) in order to successfully execute the activity, is a priority.

And in the course of such actions some words/chunks of words/songs are learnt.

That way, children find some purpose in language learning and at the same time have fun.

But, we have to grade  children! We have to follow the curriculum and ... different standards of knowledge are listed there ...

Opening the curriculum, page 6 (1st  garde) or page 7 (2nd and 3rd grade) and reading the general aims, is where I find the useful aims of early language learning.

Let's say the lesson covers the game 'What's your name?' (see the post 5-12-2015). The game is going to be played outdoors.

The lesson covers the general aims:

The GM (general aim) - Acclimatisation to language:

Children listen to/understand the instructions given in a targeted language, which are supported by the pictures/items, mime and demonstration. (For example: come to the door, form a line, go to the wardrobe, put on your (clothes), etc.)

The GM - Developing language skills
  • listening: in order to execute the orders correctly, children need to listen (hear!!) and understand what is said;

  • speaking: while dressing up, the children sing the song 'Put on Your Shoes'; when playing the game, they ask a question and answer it. All their speaking has a meaning and purpose to them;

  • reading and writing - are covered at another time.

The GM - Developing motivation
When playing games, specially outdoors, children are highly motivated and enjoy those lessons. This way they relate language learning with fun, purpose and joy. The very things needed for developing motivation.

How do I evaluate/grade?

Observe the children. Not all at once, but few at a time and mark their performance. The number of learnt words is not important. The most important thing is, that the child understands the activity in which he/she wraps some new words/chunks of words. Understanding can be seen verbally or non-verbally. 

Then, when you write a report, just formulate different levels according to what children know, how they show their understanding etc. and write it in a report. Each child corresponds to a certain level. 

But, the parents want to know ...

I believe that teachers' job is to teach children at school and not assist parents, so that they will teach their children. Teachers organise lessons, so that children can learn/practice at school. Parents need to follow children's work/achievements and support them at their work. 

What I usually do: I print out the lyrics of the songs, the instructions of the games, tell children to describe at home what they were doing ... 

... that's all. 

So, do I just ignore those specific aims and standards in the curriculum?

Read them again. They're all in the service of global aims, aren't they?

If the specific aim states 'A child sings, recites poems/songs in a foreign language' ... didn't they all sing happily when they were dressing up before leaving for the game outdoors?

The purpose of the language is in its use, not in enumerating memorised words/songs by heart. Isn't it?

Where's the catch?

There isn't one. All you need is self confidence, high level of professional knowledge (at both fields, the targeted language and didactics) and mature (positive) self-image. 

Want to read more?

click on:


One individual meeting with a parent ...

Every teacher has individual meetings with parents, undoubtedly. 

I was spared with them for a very long time, because English language learning has only recently become systematically included in our (Slovene) curriculum. English lessons as an extra curriculum activity is, in the majority of parents' opinions, not a very serious business and therefore no parent is truly interested in details about their children's progress. Thereby, no parents' meetings.

English language learning as a regular subject at school, however, is a completely different matter. It means grading, which implies an official 'labelling' the level of  children's knowledge. Many parents (as well as their children) do not know how to deal with grades at their first encounter, specially if the grade is not to their liking. And the latter consequently leads to individual meetings with parents. 

One Monday morning at 10.05

The parent's child is in the 3rd grade. It was her/his first encounter with grading.
Mrs X: the teacher, her second individual meeting with a parent in her 26 years of practice.
Mrs Y: the child's class teacher.

Parent: Is this Mrs X's office?
Mrs X: It is. Come in. I was expecting you. Please, have a seat.
Parent: Thank you.
Mrs X: Mrs Y has already mentioned some of your concerns. Would you like to share them with me?
Parent: Yes! That's why I'm here. My child is deeply stressed. I am afraid she/he is going to hate English. She/he told me she/he was questioned as a punishment and was graded 3. That is unacceptable. Also, I checked her/his notebook. It is a disaster. Everything is spelt wrong and she/he wrote with a black felt-tip pen. How can you allow that? I had to check every spelling myself and had to correct it. How come you didn't take her notebook and correct the mistakes? How will my child learn if everything is spelt wrong?
Mrs X: Shall we discuss one thing after another?
Parent: Yes, please! Explain!
Mrs X: About being punished. I understand your child's perception of the situation. However, I have to stress out that it was our class agreement, that when I question other children, the rest of them are quiet and they listen in order to learn all about the 'what' and 'how' about the questioning.  The first three children were told a week in advance and I demonstrated the questioning for them. I also explained to the children that if they talk during the questioning, I regard that as an information that they already know everything, so they can be called out next.
Parent: My child knows nothing about it!

Mrs X: I believe her/him. There is a very serious listening problem in the class. I have a feeling that children simply do not know how to listen or to consciously perceive some new information. We're still in a process of learning it.

Parent: My child knows how to listen. It is other children who constantly talk! That's why she/he doesn't hear what you say. She/he said how everybody wrote in a notebook with a pencil, and that she/he was the only one who heard you gave the instruction to write with a felt-tip pen. Which, to be honest, I find rather odd! Writing with a black felt-tip pen?!
Mrs X: Well, in truth, the instruction was that only the title was to be written with the felt-tip pen. The rest should be in pencil. To be easier to correct, should they make a mistake. 
Parent: (surprised) Then, obviously, you should have given the instruction in Slovene if nobody understood.

Mrs X: A lot of children made a mistake at first. Which is normal. I demonstrated everything what I said: While giving the instructions, I was walking around the classroom showing what I was saying, showed what a felt-tip pen and a pencil is. At the end most of the children did it correctly. The aim of the lesson was learning how to listen by following the instructions as well as covering the topic. That was explained to the children in Slovene prior to giving instructions in English.
Parent: But there is nothing about the questioning written in the notebook. How can I know what my child needs to learn?
Mrs X: I explained it to the children in English and in Slovene, several times.
Parent: But, if the child didn't hear and couldn't tell me, then, how can I know what to teach my child?
Mrs X: Well, that is my job, I believe. The child needs to learn how to listen, to be able to hear the information that was given to him/her and then he/she will be able to learn him/herself. 
Parent: Why don't you just write it down and give it to parents. Can't you do what other teachers do?
Mrs X: I believe that children go to school to learn. And among other things they also need to learn how to listen.
Parent: And my child is now punished with grade 3! Because she/he didn't hear?
Mrs X: I'm very sorry if you see it that way. To me, grading is merely the information whether a child is on the right path. Nobody will ever ask about grades up to the class 7/8, when they become important for children's further schooling. By then, if we are allowed to do our job, children will have learnt how to perceive grading and will use it as information how to learn. It's not punishment, it's merely a piece of information.

Parent: Well, I don't agree. My child is afraid of you and I fear she/he might start hating English language, because of the grade 3. I myself am a translator and I want my child to learn English and German. How can I make her/him learn an additional language if she/he gets such bad grades at English?

Mrs X: Well, if you present grading to your child the way you've presented it to me, then I believe your child may run into some frustration.
Parent: (opens the mouth, speechless)
Mrs X: I have explained the grading to the children exactly the way I explained it to you. Some have listened, some have understood and some probably haven't. It takes time for children to understand it, that's normal. There were some children graded with 1. There were tears, of course. But I explained to them that 1 is the information telling them they didn't know 'what' and 'how' to learn. I explained them the questioning again and the knowledge they need to learn. I told them to come to me once they'd learnt. Some have already come and have been graded 5.

Parent: What about the spelling? My child has so many words spelt wrong! Why didn't you check their notebooks and correct the mistakes? My child is lucky to have me. I know English language, I corrected the mistakes. What about the children who aren't that lucky? They will learn wrong!

Mrs X: Well, I know how to spell and so do you (And to be honest, I sometimes make a mistake, too). Your child, however, still has to learn. If I correct child's spelling mistakes, the child will not learn. And it is not my job to do children's work. They go to school to do some work in order to learn. They simply have to do their part if they want to improve.

Parent: HOW? They have no books, no exercise books! WHERE CAN THEY GET THE INFORMATION?

Mrs X: I'm sorry but I don't believe the exercise books are the solution to learning. The teacher is, that's why I'm here. That's my job. I am here to provide the opportunity for children to learn. It was our 2nd lesson with the topic 'at my school'. At this point children had their FIRST opportunity to do the spelling. They had the CoolTool cards, like this one here (Mrs X shows the cards). All the children needed to do was to copy the English word next to the Slovene equivalent.
Parent: But they made so many mistakes.
Mrs X: Of course, they're still learning. Making mistakes is part of the learning process, isn't it? I allow them to make mistakes and encourage them to correct them. Learning is a process and your child is still in the process of learning. 
Parent: Where can they see the word spelt correctly if they have no notebooks?
Mrs X: We have working sheets, like this one (Mrs X shows the sheets). They are hung on the wall in the classroom. Not only during English lessons, but all the time.
Parent: What if the child doesn't want to correct the mistakes? Then surely, you'll do it?
Mrs X: I'm sorry I will not do the child's job. I am here only to provide the opportunity for children to learn and to encourage them to do their job. If the child does not want to do his/her job, then he/she needs to bear the consequences. One way of its manifestation in getting a lower grade. Analysing the grade will tell the child where he/she went wrong and will have the opportunity to correct the mistake another time.

Parent: So what now, do I simply accept that she/he has 3 in the markbook? I cannot accept that! My partner and I are both well educated and I want my child to follow our steps.
Mrs X:  Mr/Mrs Parent, it is the simplest thing for me to write grade 5 in the markbook. But, please, do ask yourself what is it that you really want for your child: to have grade 5 in a mark book or to have knowledge?
Parent: To have knowledge, of course!
Mrs X: Then, I suggest we both find a way how to help your child to gain that knowledge. In my opinion the best way ...

And I suggested the approach. I even invited the parent to come and attend one lesson.

And, believe it or not, the parent accepted.

It was 10.45 and I had to excuse myself for I was scheduled to give the next lesson.

This was only one such parent. There are still some of the same kind I'll soon have to deal with.

But, one step at a time. Besides, we all learn and learning is a life-time process. So, I encourage myself ... next time, some other parent will learn ...